Imagine a normal speaker as a point source, from which the sound waves produced diffract at a great angle (as illustraed). This causes rapid decrease in volume and quality over a short distance.
Then imagine a flat electrostatic panel producing sound from the same input signal. This time the sound waves are produced over a large, flat area, therefore have very little diffraction and the volume decreases much less over the same distance.
Let's compare the Traditional loudspeaker system with the Electrostatic loudspeaker system below.
Traditional loudspeaker system
- Small diaphragm sounding area, big pressure variations, high distortion.
- Coil-driven cone motion, producing large diffraction.
- Single side sounding. High degree distortion, unable to restore tiny musical signals.
- Magnetic force drive. Easy magnetization.
- Working state is low voltage high current. Slew rate is small.
Electrostatic loudspeaker system
- Double-face sounding area, numerous sounding sources, small pressure variations, low distortion.
- Flat diaphragm, producing sound waves of very little diffraction. The result is live performance in the room!
- Thick diaphragm with high inertia, wave-shooting apparatus is needed to restore and support.
- The weight of the diaphragm is equal to that of a piece of hair. Able to restore any tiny musical signals.
- Double side sounding push-pull drive, low distortion, wide sound field, Hi-Fi!
- Electric field drive. No magnetization.
- Working state is high voltage small current. Slew rate is big.
1. DC input
The traditional electrostatic loudspeakers all adopt 110V ~ 220V AC power supplies, which are difficult to meet the international standard for safety. Through many years of research and accurate calculations, we drew a conclusion that a 12V / 0.15A power supply can fully satisfy the amount of energy required for driving the diaphragms of our highly efficient electrostatic loudspeakers, hence it can ensure the safety of the device as the service power is less than 2W.
2. Nanotechnology-applied sounding membrane
The electrostatic-driven membrane requires a conduction treatment in order to vibrate in an alternating electric field. We have developed our own nano-coating material with strong adhesive properties, which allows the vibrating diaphragm to have lower requirements for energy, faster response, in-phase change with the music signal and more penetrating sound.
3. Cell-structure signal plates
The signal plates of the electrostatic loudspeaker have two functions: 1) sound channelling: the sound produced by the vibrating membrane comes out from the sounding plates, so it is necessary to have as high a hole-density as possible for good sound penetration; 2) the plates are also electrodes, generating the alternating electric field to drive the membrane, so it should have good conductivity, which requires as large a conduction area and thickness as possible (but in the case of excessive thickness, the hole resonance may affect the high frequency); the traditional electrostatic sounding plates consist of thin punched plates with straight or diagonal round-hole arrangements. However, only the cell-structure punch has the best sound penetration performance and the most uniform distribution of conduction area (of the static electric field), which meets two index requirements for the perfect electrostatic sounding plates, boasting the strongest electric field, highest efficiency, lowest distortion and best comprehensive performance under the condition of the same hole-density.
4. Surface protection technology
The electrostatic loudspeaker can be considered as a capacitor that uses air as the conductive medium. Its operating state is greatly influenced by the ambient conditions (temperature and humidity), mainly because: 1) the intensity of the electric field is affected by the changes of medium coefficient; 2) the drain current between both sounding plates will increase under high temperature and high humidity; 3) the leakage of polarization voltage of the vibrating diaphragm is greatly influenced by the changes of medium (air). We apply special surface protection treatment to the sounding plates and vibrating membrane, which acts as an insulation layer against temperature and humidity, and it also acts as a cut-off layer of current and voltage between both sounding plates as well as between the sounding plates and the vibrating diaphragm. Therefore, the problems that exist in the traditional electrostatic loudspeakers can be fundamentally solved, and the loudspeakers are therefore less influenced by the environment and more durable.
There is a maximum limit for the input voltage for all electrostatic loudspeakers, because when the voltage increases to a certain level, the air between the sounding plates and the vibrating diaphragm will be punctured which will damage the loudspeaker. The higher the allowable maximum input voltage is, the higher the acceptable power of the loudspeaker. Relying on the advanced treatment technology for sounding plate and vibrating diaphragm, our gap (between sounding plate and vibrating diaphragm) is 1/3 shorter than that of the traditional electrostatic loudspeaker under the condition of the same acceptable power of the loudspeaker. The intensity of the electric field is inversely proportional to the square of the gap and the small gap requires the small amplitude and small distortion of the vibrating diaphragm, so our electrostatic loudspeaker has higher efficiency, lower distortion and faster response.
5. Unit-type production
The traditional electrostatic loudspeaker adopts the single-piece massive vibrating diaphragm design. For this massive but extremely thin diaphragm, it is difficult to make it flat, not to mention the multiprocessing and fitting with other fittings. Due to so many working procedures, it is difficult to operate and it is almost impossible to ensure complete uniformity. However, the above procedures have some influence on the performance of the loudspeaker. Our electrostatic loudspeaker adopts the unit-type production. The single massive piece is divided into multiple small pieces, the dimensions of all modules are controlled by the moulds for the conformity and the fittings are mounted with the fixture to ensure the conformity of assembly, so as to ensure the high quality and conformity of our electrostatic loudspeaker to the maximum.
6. Multi-unit complex
For the full band electrostatic loudspeaker, we adopt the division and coordination design of the large and small units: the large part for LF replay and the small part for MF and HF. The dimensions of the units are confirmed after the repeated simulations, calculations and tests by the computer so as to make it all the more conform to the acoustics principles with lower frequency of LF replay and higher frequency of HF replay. The complex design of two vertical bass and alt line sources removes the pressure of room ceiling and floor on the sound so that the replay sound is more relaxed, which greatly improves the level and vertical diffusion of the loudspeaker, yielding a wider sound field and more live effects .
Overall advantages :
1. Plane driven, good positioning, less acoustic attenuation with the listening distance than the traditional loudspeaker (The traditional one is index attenuation while the electrostatic one is linear). Both good near and far sound fields. It may be the best loudspeaker for near sound field at present.
2. The electrostatic loudspeaker itself adopts push-pull drive with zero distortion theoretically. Besides, it has double-sided sounding which is closer to the actual sounding objects. For example, though the violin and the piano have certain directivity via sound conduction, the overall sounding condition is 360° sound conduction.
3. The thickness of the vibrating diaphragm is 1/100 of that of traditional loudspeaker. It adopts full drive (uniform distribution of driving points on the whole surface of the diaphragm) without the division vibration and energy remnant. It has an excellent transient state with in-phase change with music signals theoretically, giving birth to accurate tone and fine, clean and clear sound.
4. It adopts electric field force drive without alnico, so there are no problems of magnetized display.
5. It has no boxes, so there are no problems on the box sound of traditional speakers.
6. The operating state is high voltage, low current and high slewing rate.
7. The electrostatic loudspeaker traditionally has low efficiency. Generally speaking, area is sacrificed for efficiency, which causes the massive area of the electrostatic loudspeaker. However, our electrostatic loudspeaker adopts hi-tech optimum materials and comprehensive performance design so as to achieve the small but high-efficiency electrostatic loudspeaker.